. Part of Ukraine in the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947. Transcarpathia, which had returned from Hungary to Czechoslovakia in 1944, was ceded to Ukraine in 1945 by a Czech-Soviet government agreement. In 1945, Ukraine became a founding member of the United Nations and later became a signatory to peace treaties. After the Korean War (July 27, 1953), the withdrawal of France from Indochina (the Geneva Accords of July 20, 1954 were rejected by the United States) or after the war in Vietnam, no peace treaty – only ceasefire agreements – was adopted. In the latter case, an agreement was finally reached on January 28, 1973, after five years of negotiations between the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the National Liberation Front. Although it had the breadth and scope of a peace treaty, it was simply an executive agreement that came into effect on the U.S. side with its signature by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and not after Senate approval. One of the most important changes after the war was the global change in these nations of authority. European influence in America, Africa and Asia diminished considerably and only a few of them managed to retain their colonial outposts, such as for example; Great Britain, France and the Netherlands. While the United States was considered one of the two largest military and political powers after World War II, it showed no interest in colonization, with the exception of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The expulsions of ethnic Germans by the Poles affected, in addition to the Germans located in regions west of the Polish border of 1937 (as in most of the former Prussian province of West Prussia), the territories “under Polish administration” until a final German peace treaty, that is to say Southeast Prussia (Masuria), Western Rear Pomerania, the Neue Mark region of the former province of Brandenburg, the districts of the grenzmark Posen-West Prussia, Lower Silesia and the parts of Upper Silesia that had remained with Germany after the 1921 referendum.
It also concerned the German minority living on the territory of the former Second Polish Republic in Greater Poland, Eastern Upper Silesia, the country of Chełmno and the Polish corridor with Gdansk. All this was achieved outside the procedural framework provided for by the Potsdam Conference of 1945. On this occasion, a Council of Foreign Ministers (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France and China) was created to negotiate the various peace treaties, assuming that only those who had signed ceasefire agreements with the defeated nations would participate in the contract negotiations (France is considered a ceasefire signed with Italy). . . .