This situation is therefore different from that in which a couple concludes an agreement on abortion in the event of a future pregnancy. Such agreements are not applicable because of women`s right to privacy and autonomy. See Planned Parenthood v. Danforth, 428 U.P. 52, 96 p. Ct. 2831, 49 L. Ed. 2d 788 (1976) (invalidation of the written consent of the spouse as a precondition for abortion). After Davis` failed adoption attempt, the tennessee-based couple paid $35,000 for six in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments starting in 1985 at the Knoxville Fertility Clinic in Knoxville, Tennessee. All six attempts at IVF pregnancy ultimately failed. The couple decided to wait until November 1988 to begin the next round of IVF treatments, when the clinic was able to cryopreserve unused pre-preservatives for further transfer.